Music of the Uyghurs
[ PART II ]
Rachel Harris Lecturer in Ethnomusicology, Music Dept. SOAS, London
Xinjiang Arts Research Unit
[Published 2002. Encyclopedia of the Turks, vol. 6. Istanbul: Yeni Turkiye, pp542-9.]
The Uyghur Muqam
The Uyghur Muqam are large-scale suites consisting of sung poetry, stories, dance tunes and instrumental sections. Some of the lyrics of the Muqam are drawn from the great Central Asian Chagatay poets, Nawayi, Shah Meshrep, Fuzuli, Mulla Belil and Zelil. Some are drawn from folk poetry, especially the popular tale of the lovers Gherip and Senem. Much of the poetry is linked to the imagery and ideals of the Sufis. The Muqam are typically performed by a small ensemble of singers, led by the lead singer muqamchi, accompanied by plucked or bowed lutes and dap frame drum, but they may also be played in instrumental form by kettle drum and shawm (naghra-sunay) bands. Playing the Muqam is not reserved to an exclusive group of professional musicians; historically it was performed in folk contexts
as well as in the courts of local kings. Men and women, beggars and respected religious men may practice this tradition, and the muqam are often referred to in terms of a spiritual, even physical need. Listening to the Muqam can still serve a religious and meditative function, especially in the context of Xinjiang´s great religious festivals. Contemporary scholars refer to four distinct regional genres: the Twelve Muqam of the Kashgar-Yarkand region, the Turpan Muqam, the Qumul Muqam, and the Dolan Muqam.
The Twelve Muqam each consist of a suite of fixed melodic sequences and order. The names of the muqam are drawn from Arabic and Persian: Rak, Chebbayat, Sigah, Chahargah, Panjigah, Ozhal , Ejem, Ushshaq, Bayat, Nawa, Mushawrak, Iraq.
Each of the Twelve Muqam is structured as follows:
Chong neghma (great music) -begins with the muqaddime (introduction) which is sung solo in free meter. A suite of named pieces in varying set rhythms follows. Most of the sung pieces are followed by an instrumental ornamented version, marghul.
Dastan (narrative songs) -each muqam contains several dastan in different rhythms. Again each dastan is followed by an instrumental marghul. The lyrics are drawn from sections of folk narrative songs and relate the stories of famous lovers. These are the most accesible and widespread sections of the Twelve Muqam.
Meshrep (gathering) -several faster sung pieces in 2/4 or sometimes 7/8 rhythms, consisting of folk love poetry. This section of the muqam is for dancing. Usually the lyrics of the first meshrep are attributed to a famous poet.
The Turpan Muqam , of which nine have been creditably collected, each consist of a suite in six named sections:
Ghezel -in free rhythm, sung solo
Bashchekit - in 3/4 rhythm, a slow sung piece
Yalangchekit - in 5/4 or 13/8 rhythm, a slow sung piece
Jula - in 4/4, a moderate dance piece
Senem - in 4/4, an accelerating dance piece including the local dance piece, Nazarkum.
Seliqe - in 4/4, a moderate dance piece
Each of the Turpan Muqam generally corresponds to one mode, and each is about thirty minutes in length. Although no information on its historical transmission is currently available, musically there is much to link the Turpan Muqam to the chong neghme of the Twelve Muqam. While the section names differ, there is correspondence in overall structure, rhythmic cycles and melodic material. The preferred instrument for the Turpan Muqam is the satar bowed lute, plus tembur, dutar, chang and dap frame drum accompanying voices. The Turpan Muqam are also played in an instrumental version on the naghra-sunay combination. Skilled drummers add breath-taking variations to the basic rhythms, transforming the Yalangchekit section, for example, from its basic 5/4-beat into a 17-beat aqsaq limping rhythmic pattern.
Music of the Uyghurs
The Qumul Muqam
Although it is common practice now to refer to the Qumul Muqam, the use of term muqam here is recent. The Qumul Muqam take the form of suites of local folk songs, varying in length between eight and twenty-two songs, with an unmetered muqeddime at their head. Nineteen suites have been collected and published as the Qumul Muqam. The Qumul Muqam have a strong pentatonic basis; rhythms include 2/4, 4/4, 5/8, and 7/8. The main instrument for the Qumul Muqam is the Qumul ghijek accompanied by the Qumul rawap, chang and dap.
Music of the Uyghurs
The Dolan Uyghurs
-who live in the region between Aqsu and Kashgar have their own distinctive muqam tradition. The Dolan Muqam takes the form of a five-part suite:
Muqeddime - a brief unmetered solo sung section
Chekitme - in 6/4 rhythm. This signals the start of the dancing
Senem - in 4/4 rhythm (like the opening rhythm of the senem dance suites)
Seliqes - in 4/4. The dancers begin to move in a large circle
Serilma - in 4/4 or 5/8. The dancers whirl, and some enter a trance-like state
Some of the names of the Dolan Muqam are the same as the Twelve Muqam, but musically they are distinct at six to nine minutes in length; nine suites have been identified. Folk musicians tend to refer to their suites as bayawan (desert), suggesting that the use of the term muqam in this context is also a rather recent phenomenon. The instruments and texts used by the Dolan are unique. The Dolan Muqam are accompanied by drummers, a Dolan rawap, Dolan ghijek, and the qalon dulcimer.
Music of the Uyghurs
The Uyghurs classify songs according to their place of origin, and each region has its own distinctive sound. Some towns, for example Atush
in the south, have their own well-known and distinctive repertoire. Modally the songs of southern Xinjiang are usually heptatonic while the songs of Ili, Turpan and Qumul are more commonly pentatonic or hexatonic. Many folk songs have recurrent raised or lowered intervals. Duple rhythms are common, but 5/8, 7/8 and even 9/8 rhythms also appear. Primarily accompanied by the dutar and/or a frame drum, one interesting feature of Uyghur folk song is that the accented drum beat does not fall at the beginning or end of the melodic phrase. The singing style is highly ornamented and uses a wide range, especially in the songs of Ili whose attractive swoops and leaps in the melodic line have lead some to term them ´wolf songs´. The Qumul style is considered softer, while the Kashgar style is more vigorous. Songs are usually short, lasting a few minutes, and are commonly strung together into suites (yurushi), like the street song suite (kocha nakhshisi yurushi) of Ili.
The vast majority of song lyrics dwell on tragic love , others take religious or local historical themes, and others are comical.
Music of the Uyghurs
Uyghurs use the term senem (from the Arab: carved image) to refer suites of between six and thirteen songs played usually for dancing. All the major oasis towns each have their own distinctive senem, as does the Ili valley and the Dolan people. Each senem employs the distinctive vocal style and a fixed suite of songs of its own region, but the senem across the region are all related rhythmically, beginning with the same moderate four-beat dance rhythm and move gradually towards a faster four-beat. Each region uses its own preferred instrumental combination to accompanying singers, and the senem may also be played in a purely instrumental version by the naghra-sunay bands.
Other forms of dance music are specifically dedicated to dancing. The 'Bowl dance' where dancers balance several bowls on their heads is particularly well-known . During the festival of Qurban, naghra-sunay bands may play on the roofs of the main mosques, most famously in Kashgar, and large crowds gather to dance the local styles of shadiyana and sama throughout the night. Many styles of Uyghur dancing involve a theatrical element, like the leper, comic skits with sung lyrics and spoken parts, or the popular dance Nazirkom of Turpan. Some Uyghur dances are thought to be of totemic origin and may formerly have served a ritual function although they are now performed for entertainment, like the swan dance (ghaz ussul) or horse dance (at ussul) in which the dancer dresses in pantomime animal costume.
Narrative songs (Al neghme)
There are five named genres of narrative songs, performed by one or several singers accompanying themselves on plucked lutes or percussion. Some dastan are to do with famous lovers, like the tale of Gherip and Senem (which has also been made into a popular Uyghur opera and film)or Horliqa and Hemrajan, others tell of mythical and historical heroes and heroines of the Uyghurs like Emir Guroghli, Abdurakhman Khan, and Nuzugum. Some of these tales have a long and complex provenance, taken from the oral tradition and reworked by the Central Asian poets and returned to the folk context. Others are based on more recent historical events. The dastan employ a comparatively wide pitch range, and are related to the folk song repertoire. They are found in 3/4, 4/4, 5/8 or 7/8 rhythms. Qoshaq are short rhymed poems, on moral or comical themes, employing a narrower pitch range. The leper skits are also counted as a genre of narrative song. The eytshish are sung in duets and mix sections of speech and song. They are usually comical and may be theatrical in performance, often involving cross-dressing. The meddhi neghme are stories relating to the Islamic tradition or on moral themes, with short sung refrains and longer spoken sections, usually performed without musical instruments.
Formerly after Friday prayers people gathered in teahouses to listen to the story-tellers, but the tradition is now increasingly rare, a phenomenon of modernisation, in particular the impact of television and cassettes. But storytellers can still be found today on the streets of the bazaars, and especially in the poorer south, and they are common sight at the shrine festivals.
Music of the Uyghurs
The Uyghurs play many forms of instrumental music in diverse styles, many derived from vocal genres and developed for the professional repertoire. Popular pieces include ejem performed on the tembur and dutar and tashwayperformed on the rawap. Many musical genres are also played in instrumental form by the naghra-sunay bands.
Amongst the Uyghurs, as in many cultures, the boundaries of the sacred and the secular are blurred, and many forms of secular music are performed in ritual contexts. Some musical forms, however, are unique to the ritual context. Uyghur ritual healers, still found in the countryside, are known as baqshi or pirghun. Their ritual chants of expulsion often employ local folk song melodies, and sometimes their lyrics are on the same themes of love as the folk songs. They are usually accompanied by several drummers (dapendi). Their rituals are strongly shamanic in form, with the use of the rhythms of the frame drum to drive out the possessing spirit, and the trance-like dance of the pirghun.
Music of the Uyghurs
The Uyghur Sufi lodges maintain a unique musical tradition in their large-scale zikr rituals . The practice of zikr, found amongst Sufis across Central Asia, Iran, and Turkey, refers to the recitation of the names of Allah and Islamic saints. Amongst the Uyghurs this ritual is popularly termed helqe (sohbet): ´circling (and talking)´, while zikiri (zikr) refers specifically to the ritual chants. The ritual song hokmet is sung in a free metered falsetto, with a plangent melody. As the names and deeds of the saints, in this tradition the founder of the lodge and the subsequent generations of his disciples, are recited, the men attending the ritual weep. As the singer moves into the metered section, at first the men kneel and rock back and forth energetically, then they begin to move in a large circle, moving their arms to the beat and chanting. Each chant has a specific rhythm, and up to seventeen may be performed in the course of a ritual, lasting up to seven hours. In the Khoten region, up to the 1970s, Sufi rituals were accompanied by musical instruments, including bowed and plucked lutes and percussion. This practice has now virtually died out, although some groups still use sapaye percussion sticks to accompany their chants.
ritualists, known as buwi, are numerous across the region. Their rituals are similiar in form to those of the men, although the melodies of their ritual songs (munajat) differ from the hokmet of the men. The buwi also sing at shrine (mazar) festivals, they may serve as mourners at funerals, and they conduct healing and exorcism rituals (khetme) in peoples homes. Their plangent monajat songs, usually sung unaccompanied, are considered to be very moving.
Music of the Uyghurs
Amongst the Uyghurs religious mendicants can still be found, called ashiq or qelender .These wandering beggars are said to have consecrated their life to music-making for God, and Uyghurs are very charitable towards them. Today they most commonly use percussion instruments, dap, sapaye or tash, but at shrine festivals they may also play plucked or bowed lutes. Many of their songs, also called hokmet, are closely related to the meshrep sections of the Twelve Muqam.
The Uyghurs hold meshrep or gatherings regularly at festival times, and for many kinds of toy - weddings, circumcisions, for girls coming of age, for the harvest, etc.
Meshrep are common around the region, and take different forms depending on local custom , and may include any number of people.
Music of the Uyghurs
The Dolan Meshrep are commonly held on a much larger scale, attended by hundreds of people, and often last the whole night. Such occasions are incomplete without music. Alongside performance of muqam and dancing, comical skits and epic songs, a religious leader may be invited to discourse on moral and religious questions, and meshrep have traditionally served the social function of a public court, with wrongdoers brought before the meshrep organiser (yigit beshi) to be criticised and punished. At weddings, the more solemn rituals of the morning held in the groom's home are often followed by singing from the muqam. When the groom goes to fetch the bride, the procession is led by a naghra-sunay band, these days often played from the back of a truck. In the afternoon, a banquet is held and a band is employed to sing a range of music from folk songs and senem to pop music, for dancing. The festivals of Qurban, Rozi and Nawruz are also important occasions for musical activity, and the great shrine festivals held at the tombs of Islamic saints are the venues for all kinds of music: muqam, story-telling, Sufi ritual music, and dancing.
During, Jean & Trebinjac, Sabine. 1991. Introduction
au Muqam Ouigour. Bloomington, Indiana.
Harris, Rachel. 1998. Music,
Identity and Persuasion: ethnic minority music in Xinjiang, China. Ph.D.
Dissertation. London University.
___ 2001. 'Wang Luobin: "Folksong
King of the Northwest" or Song Thief? Copyright, representation and
Chinese "folksongs".' in Latham, Kevin & Thompson, Stuart eds.
Consuming China: approaches to cultural change in contemporary China.
___ 2001. 'Cassettes, Bazaars and Saving the Nation: the
Uyghur Music Industry in Xinjiang, China.' in Craig, Tim & King,
Richard eds. Global Goes Local: Popular Culture in Asia. University of
British Columbia Press.
Light, Nathan. 1998. Slippery Paths: The
Performance and Canonization of Turkic Literature and Uyghur Muqam Song in
Islam and Modernity. (Folklore, Indiana University).
1984. 'The Uighur Mukam'. Asian Music.
___ 1995. China's Minority
Cultures: identities and integration since 1912. New York: Longman.
___ Roberts, Sean. 1998. 'Negotiating Locality, Islam, and National
Culture in a Changing Borderlands: the revival of the Meshrep ritual among
young Uighur men in the Ili valley.' Central Asian Survey. 17/4.
___ Svanberg, Ingvar. 1996. 'Ethnic Categorizations and
Cultural Diversity in Xinjiang: The Dolans along Yarkand River'. Central
Asiatic Journal. 40/2. pp260-282.
___ Trebinjac, Sabine. 1995. 'Femme,
Seule et Venue d'Ailleurs: trois atouts d'un ethnomusicologue au Turkestan
Chinois.' Cahiers de Musiques Traditionelles 8.
___ 2000. Le Pouvoir
en Chantant:l'art de fabriquer une musique chinoise. Nanterre: Societe
___ 2000. New Grove Dictionary of Music: entry on
Zhongguo Minjian Yinyue Jicheng: Xinjiang (Anthology
of Chinese Folk Music: Xinjiang).
___ Zhou Ji. 1998. Weiwu'erzu (The
Uyghurs) Chapter 8 (pp295-373) in: Zhongguo Shaoshu Minzu Yinyue Shi
(History of Music of Chinese Ethnic Minorities). Yuan Bingchang & Feng
Guangyu eds. Zhongyang minzu daxue cbs.
___ 2001. Youguan 'Daolang
Mukamu' de bijiao yanjiu (Comparative research on the Dolan Muqam).
Zhongyang yinyue xueyuan xuebao 2001/1.
Music of Chinese Minorities. 1981. Japan: King Record
Turkestan Chinois/Xinjiang: musique Ouigoures. 1990. Recordings by
Sabine Trebinjac & Jean During. France: OCORA.
La Route de Soie,
Chine, Xinjiang. 1992. Recordings by Anderson Bakewell. France:
Music of Xinjiang. Xinjiang Song-and-Dance
Troupe. 1993. BMG Hong Kong Ltd.
The Red Rose: Xinjiang Instrumental
Music. Mukam Art Troupe of Xinjiang. 1998. Hong Kong: Hugo Productions.
Don't Torment Me, Dear: Xinjiang Folk Songs. Mukam Art
Troupe of Xinjiang. 1998. Hong Kong: Hugo Productions. HRP 7170-2.
Uyghur Musicians from Xinjiang: music from the oasis towns of Central
Asia. 2000. UK: Globestyle. CDORBD 098.